The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale

The Borg Score is a tool to measure an individual’s effort, exertion, breathlessness and fatigue during a physical activity. It is highly relevant for those working in health and social care.  In simple terms, it provides a measure of how hard an individual feels their body is working, based on the physical sensations that the individual feels. For example, an increase in their heart rate; breathing rate; sweating, or muscle fatigue.  

The scale is a numerical list against which an individual is asked to rate their exertion during a specific activity. The scaling ranges from ‘6’ to ‘20’ (rather than ‘0’ to ‘20’). This is because the score on the scale relate to a heart rate per minute in a healthy adult. For example, a score of 6 corresponds to a heart rate of 60 beats per minute and a score of 8 corresponds to a heart rate of 80 beats per minute. The scores of several individuals are combined give an indication of the intensity of an activity.

NAPPI physical skills have all undergone extensive assessment using Borg and other assessment tools. The NAPPI risk assessment documents were developed by an Independent Biomechanical Expert who used Borg scale results during the review as required every two years by the Restraint Reduction Network (RRN) Training Standards (2019).

Self-Protection Skills

Name of Skill BORG Rating
X-Shield 7.83
Grab Release 8.20
Hair Pull Release 8.93
Bite Avoidance 8.48
Front Choke Escape 9.25


NAPPI Restrictive Skills

Name of Skill BORG Rating
Capture Wrap Staff 1: 13.05 - Staff 2: 12.72
Capture Wrap to Two Person Moving Staff 1: 13.05 - Staff 2: 12.72

Two Person Moving Staff 1: 11.81 - Staff 2: 11.88

Two Person Moving to Capture Wrap
Staff 1: 13.05 - Staff 2: 12.72

One Arm Body Wrap
11.53
Capture Wrap to Seated Staff 1: 11.84 - Staff 2: 11.86

Seated Staff 1: 11.84 - Staff 2: 11.88

Supine Staff 1 & 2: 11.77 - Staff 3: 12.84 - Staff 4: 9.07

Recovery Position Right Arm: 10.39 - Left Arm: 10.05 - Legs: 12.02


NAPPI Clinical Holding Skills

Name of Skill BORG Rating
One Person Stationary Laying Staff 1: 13 estimated - Staff 2: 11 estimated

One Person Stationary Seated
9.53
One Person Stationary Standing
11.81
Two Person Rolling Technique Staff 1: 11 estimated - Staff 2: 11 estimated

Two Person Stationary Laying
Securing Head: 11 estimated - Securing Legs: 13 estimated

Two Person Stationary Seated
9.53
Two Person Stationary Standing
Right Side: 9.38 - Left Side:  9.68


See The Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) tool.

See Benner's Stages of Clinical Competence.

See N-10 Skill Selection Tool.

See Anthropometrics.

See Teaching Approach to Physical Skills.

See Trainer Specification (RRN).

For further information about NAPPI Restrictive Physical skills or Clinical Holding skills and how they link to the NAPPI PBS Model, please call and speak with one of our team.