Benner's Stages of Clinical Competence

Benner’s theory (based on the Dreyfus Model of Skill Acquisition) suggests that education and experience, contribute to a nurse’s development in a way that enables them to fully understand what it means to provide high quality patient care.  Benner believes that the best nurses develop skills over time, a theory that became known as “Novice to Expert”.

A nurse gains knowledge and skills (even when they don’t realise it) that adds to their personal expertise. This idea became the “Knowing how, knowing that” element of this theory.  This process follows specific steps of development, allowing an individual to progress from Novice to Expert, when given enough time and support.

Download a copy of the NAPPI Adapted Benner Chart by clicking here.

NAPPI physical skills have all undergone extensive assessment using Benner’s Stages of Clinical Competence and other assessment tools. The NAPPI risk assessment documents were developed by an Independent Biomechanical Expert who used Benner’s Stages during the review as required every two years by the Restraint Reduction Network (RRN) Training Standards (2019). 

Self-Protection Skills

Name of Skill
Benner Score

X-Shield
Novice (or above)

Grab Release
Novice (or above)

Hair Pull Release
Advanced Beginner (or above)

Bite Avoidance
Novice (or above)

Front Choke Escape
Novice (or above)


NAPPI Restrictive Skills

Name of Skill
Benner Score

Capture Wrap
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Advanced Beginner (or above)

Capture Wrap to Two Person Moving
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Advanced Beginner (or above)

Two Person Moving
Staff 1: Novice (or above) - Staff 2: Novice (or above)

Two Person Moving to Capture Wrap
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Advanced Beginner (or above)

One Arm Body Wrap
Competent Leader (or above)

Capture Wrap to Seated
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Advanced Beginner (or above)

Seated
Staff 1: Novice (or above) - Staff 2: Novice (or above)

Supine
Staff 1 & 2: One Competent Leader (or above) and One Advanced Beginner (or above) - Staff 3: Novice (or above) - Staff 4: Novice (or above)

Recovery Position
Right Arm: Competent Leader (or above) - Left Arm: Novice (or above) - Legs: Competent Leader (or above)


NAPPI Clinical Holding Skills

Name of Skill
Benner Score

One Person Stationary Laying
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Novice (or above)

One Person Stationary Seated
Novice (or above)

One Person Stationary Standing
Novice (or above)

Two Person Rolling Technique
Staff 1: Competent Leader (or above) - Staff 2: Novice (or above)

Two Person Stationary Laying
Securing Head: Novice (or above) - Securing Legs: Novice (or above)

Two Person Stationary Seated
Staff 1: Novice (or above) - Staff 2: Novice (or above)

Two Person Stationary Standing
Right Side: Novice (or above) - Left Side: Novice (or above)


See The Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion (RPE) scale.

See The Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) tool.

See N-10 Skill Selection Tool.

See Anthropometrics.

See Teaching Approach to Physical Skills.

See Trainer Specification (RRN).

For further information about NAPPI Restrictive Physical skills or Clinical Holding skills and how they link to the NAPPI PBS Model, please call and speak with one of our team.